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Storm bis Štormo prozoje. The Czech language has three commonly used terms, all of which may be rendered in English as friend, namely přítel, kamarád and známý. The analysis also incorporates some comparable examples from Lithuanian sources.

Key-words: friends, familiarity, lonely hearts, translation, Czech, Lithuanian, English. Mám čtyři děti. Mám rodiče, ještě i prarodiče a tři opravdu dobré přátele. To je vše, co potřebuju.

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Raději mám tři opravdu dobré kamarády než 20 jen dobrých. Přesto jste v případě Šárky Grossové spojila přátelství s obchodem. Nemůžete si tím své kamarádství zkazit? Nonetheless, in the case of Šárka Grossová you combined friendship přátelství with business.

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Aby věděli, já jsem teď politik a nesmím se s nikým kamarádit. Pokud s těmito lidmi přátelíte, můžete tušit, že to může být problém. If you are friends přátelíte with these people then you can expect problems.

Both examples from MF Dnes, A z některých kamarádů, pokud mě nezklamou, se časem stanou přátelé. Hana Marvanová in Story no.

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Further evidence of a difference in the Czech and English perceptions of friendship is provided by Adamec in a newspaper column entitled Je víc kamarád nebo přítel? The analysis and search for pragmatic equivalents in translation will be based on British English.

Bilingual Czech-English dictionaries indicate that kamarád, in addition to friend, also covers mate and pal; it is doubtful, however, whether using pal or mate for kamarád in extract 4a above would aid comprehension since there is persuasive evidence to suggest English native speakers do not necessarily differentiate between friend on the one hand and pal or mate on the other.

Most of our pals fall by the wayside as partners, kids, marriage, divorce, emigration, general laziness and, sadly, even death take their toll.

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But true friendship endures. Only two of my best mates live in the same city as me — and one is in New York. The same could be said of similar informal terms for friend such as chum and the mainly American buddy.

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Thus, to translate Je víc kamarád, nebo přítel? A further problem would also arise of how then to render in English the Czech kámoš -kaan informal derivative of kamarád -ka. As a starting point for analysis of the lexical items available to Czech native speakers, one would suggest the key to the Marvanová quote in 4a lies in the Czech perception of friendship having three stages of development: známost—kamarádství—přátelství.

The people involved in these relationships are známý—kamarád—přítel, the corresponding feminine forms being známá—kamarádka—přítelkyně. Here an analogy outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire be drawn with Lithuanian, which has pažintis—draugystė—bičiulystė, then pažįstamas -a —draugas -ė —bičiulis -ė. In other words, formally equivalent counterparts found in bilingual dictionaries are not always pragmatically appropriate in translation for some further examples of this see Odlin, Hence a person one trusts implicitly and is confident will always be prepared selflessly to help in a crisis is a přítel.

This is indicated by the proverb A friend in need is a friend indeed, whose Czech translation reads V nouzi poznáš přítele literally: In need you will recognise a friend. During the course of the research, 53 Czechs of varying ages between 18 and 45 were questioned on how they would explain the přítel-kamarád distinction to a native English speaker studying Czech.

For the record, the remaining 12 respondents, all between the age of 18 and 25, emphasised first and foremost the sexual relationship aspect of přítel-kyně; this will be discussed in more detail below.

The Czech text below, for example, is taken from a blog and reproduced here as it appeared on the website, without diacritics. In the English translation, the terms kamárad and přítel will be outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire, as it were.

Mozna bych mel napsat: mam jednoho pritele.

On je totiz opravdu velky rozdil mezi temito dvema slovy. Kamaradu mam totiz spousty. Ten opravdovy pritel je ale jen jeden. Dlouho se hleda, ale kdyz ho jednou najdete, byva to na cely zivot. Kamaradi prichazi a zase mizi, on ale jde celym mym zivotem. A pritom to byl dlouhou dobu jen kamarad. Postupem casu se ale kamaradstvi zmenilo v pratelstvi. V opravdove pratelstvi. A to zustava. Maybe I should say: I have one pritel.

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There is a really big outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire between these two words. The fact is I have plenty of kamarads. Kamarads come and go but he [the přítel] is with me all my life. Even if for a long time he was only a kamarad. But in the course of time kamaradstvi turned into pratelstvi. Into real friendship. And that remains.

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With this in mind, namely the idea that a kamarád can subsequently become a přítel, one might suggest the following English translation of the Marvanová quotation in 4a : 4c I choose people I like being with according to their nature. This admittedly involves an ad hoc rendering of kamarádi but such is the nature of the differentiation in Czech usage that no one-to-one English equivalent can be found which would be appropriate or even meaningful in all contexts.

A further factor to be considered is the sociolinguistic setting. In all four instances the speaker is Maurice Braithwaite, a rugby league player: in 8 and 9he is addressing Mr Weaver, the businessman owner of the team Maurice plays for; in 10 and 11 he is talking to a team-mate, Arthur Machin, who is from a similar working-class background to Maurice himself.

The Czech term Outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire are, of course, other factors to be considered here, such as the T-V pronoun distinction expressed in Czech via the verb endings : Maurice uses the polite form to Binarinių opcionų prekyba izraeliu Weaver and the familiar form to Arthur.

Such considerations, however, take us beyond the scope of the current paper. In Standard Czech, přítel has irregular plural forms in the nominative and accusative cases přátelé and the genitive plural přátel. The following example is characteristic of its kind: 12a Valentýn je za dveřmi a většina dívek a žen od svých přítelů, manželů i milenců očekává nějaké romantické gesto, dárek či počin.

The přítelů form is hitherto unmentioned in dictionaries and grammar books, and informal conversations with Czech friends and acquaintances indicate not all native Czech speakers would approve of it ever being codified as an acceptable norm. The following somewhat idiosyncratic piece, however, needlessly employs the very form which the author then straightaway purports to dislike.

Tedy přítelů a přítelkyň ne v tom zprofanovaném smyslu, v jakém se tato slova většině lidí vybaví. Mimochodem, čeština je krásná i záludná, klidně jsem mohl použít jediného slova — přátel, že? Here I mean přítels and přítelkyněs not in the debased sense that most people interpret these words.

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Using the standard form is potentially ambiguous and hence may require further clarification, as in Morton talking about Lady Diana Spencer before she became Princess of Wales: 14a There were lots of boyfriends but none became lovers. Morton,44 14b Diana měla spoustu outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire, ale žádný z outil prekybos pasirinkimo binaire se nestal jejím milencem. Morton,58 The short texts below are typical of the sort found in lonely hearts columns in various Czech newspapers and magazines.

SOURCE: London Lite, 25 July Lithuanian lonely hearts differ in format from English ones and have more in common with the Czech in that the ads are usually written in full sentences: 18 Susipažinsiu rimtai draugystei su m. I seek a serious friendship with a y. For an adult young unmarried man there is another word: vaikinas.

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Here use of the possessive determiner would be of great importance: thus mano vaikinas would automatically be interpreted in the sense of my boyfriend while mano draugas could be either my friend or my boyfriend; similarly mano mergina is my girlfriend and mano draugė either my friend or my girlfriend. Ji buvo jo geriausia draugė. Puikiai pažinojau tą merginą, viskas atrodė gražu ir nekalta. She was his best friend.

I knew that girl well, everything seemed to be nice and innocent. Ideally we would like to find English originals, fiction and non-fiction, which have been translated into both Czech and Lithuanian. Another possible avenue of investigation would be variations in usage between different age groups: for instance, anecdotal evidence seems to indicate elderly Czechs use známý considerably more often in situations where the younger generation would prefer kamarád. Je vic kamarád, nebo přítel?

In: Metro Praha, 5. Barková: Šárka nevydrži sedět doma. In: Mf Dnes, Beckham World Exclusive! Cook, G. Oxford: OUP. Keinys, S. Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedjų leidybos institutas.

Daubney, M. In: The Sun, 9. Machek, V. Etymologický slovník jazyke 24option trading central. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny.

Montgomery, M.